Sensitive colorimetric detection of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus on dairy farms using LAMP with pH-responsive polydiacetylene

Li, Qiaofeng; An, Zhaoxia; Sun, Tieqiang; Ji, Shuaifeng; Wang, Weiya; Peng, Yuan; Wang, Zhouping; Salentijn, Gert I.J.; Gao, Zhixian; Han, Dianpeng


Rapidly and accurately detecting antibiotic-resistant pathogens in agriculture and husbandry is important since these represent a major threat to public health. While much attention has been dedicated to detecting now-common resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, fewer methods have been developed to assess resistance against macrolides in Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Here, we report a visual on-site detection system for macrolide resistant SA in dairy products. First, metagenomic sequencing in raw milk, cow manure, water and aerosol deposit collected from dairy farms around Tianjin was used to identify the most abundant macrolide resistance gene, which was found to be the macB gene. In parallel, SA housekeeping genes were screened to allow selective identification of SA, which resulted in the selection of the SAOUHSC_01275 gene. Next, LAMP assays targeting the above-mentioned genes were developed and interpreted by agarose gel electrophoresis. For on-site application, different pH-sensitive colorimetric LAMP indicators were compared, which resulted in selection of polydiacetylene (PDA) as the most sensitive candidate. Additionally, a semi-quantitative detection could be realized by analyzing the RGB information via smartphone with a LOD of 1.344 × 10−7 ng/μL of genomic DNA from a milk sample. Finally, the proposed method was successfully carried out at a real farm within 1 h from sample to result by using freeze-dried reagents and portable devices. This is the first instance in which PDA is used to detect LAMP products, and this generic read-out system can be expanded to other antibiotic resistant genes and bacteria.