Development of a 135K SNP genotyping array for Actinidia arguta and its applications for genetic mapping and QTL analysis in kiwifruit

Wang, Ran; Xing, Siyuan; Bourke, Peter M.; Qi, Xiuquan; Lin, Miaomiao; Esselink, Danny; Arens, Paul; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Visser, Richard G.F.; Sun, Leiming; Zhong, Yunpeng; Gu, Hong; Li, Yukuo; Li, Sikai; Maliepaard, Chris; Fang, Jinbao


Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp) is a woody, perennial and deciduous vine. In this genus, there are multiple ploidy levels but the main cultivated cultivars are polyploid. Despite the availability of many genomic resources in kiwifruit, SNP genotyping is still a challenge given these different levels of polyploidy. Recent advances in SNP array technologies have offered a high-throughput genotyping platform for genome-wide DNA polymorphisms. In this study, we developed a high-density SNP genotyping array to facilitate genetic studies and breeding applications in kiwifruit. SNP discovery was performed by genome-wide DNA sequencing of 40 kiwifruit genotypes. The identified SNPs were stringently filtered for sequence quality, predicted conversion performance and distribution over the available Actinidia chinensis genome. A total of 134 729 unique SNPs were put on the array. The array was evaluated by genotyping 400 kiwifruit individuals. We performed a multidimensional scaling analysis to assess the diversity of kiwifruit germplasm, showing that the array was effective to distinguish kiwifruit accessions. Using a tetraploid F1 population, we constructed an integrated linkage map covering 3060.9 cM across 29 linkage groups and performed QTL analysis for the sex locus that has been identified on Linkage Group 3 (LG3) in Actinidia arguta. Finally, our dataset presented evidence of tetrasomic inheritance with partial preferential pairing in A. arguta. In conclusion, we developed and evaluated a 135K SNP genotyping array for kiwifruit. It has the advantage of a comprehensive design that can be an effective tool in genetic studies and breeding applications in this high-value crop.