Best practices and current implementation of emerging smartphone-based (bio)sensors - Part 2 : Development, validation, and social impact

Geballa-Koukoula, A.; Ross, G.M.S.; Bosman, A.J.; Zhao, Y.; Zhou, H.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Rafferty, K.; Elliott, C.T.; Salentijn, G.IJ.


The amalgamation of computer-like capabilities and portability of modern smartphones has fuelled their implementation as detectors and interfaces in emerging smartphone-based (bio)sensors (SbSs) for e.g. healthcare, point-of-need, food safety, environmental science, and forensics systems. SbSs intrinsically carry great potential for consumer diagnostics, and future ‘citizen science’ approaches, which have far-reaching implications for the technological, legal, and ethical aspects associated with the research, development, and deployment of SbSs. In this review (part 2 of a pair of review papers), we evaluated the pertinent literature on issues concerning the development and validation of SbSs, and we address their potential social impact. Finally, insights gleaned are combined in a set of recommendations to guide future ethical, sustainable, and efficient research, development, and deployment of SbSs.