Composition-texture decoupling of personalized 3D-printed food (PRINTYOURFOOD)

We aim to better understand and predict the texture of 3D printed food as influenced by its macronutrient composition, printing design and post-processing conditions, via experimental design and data-driven modelling.


3D Food Printing (3DFP) technology can create personalised food that varies in nutritional content and texture, for different consumer groups. Texture of 3D-printed food is influenced by macronutrient composition, printing design, and post-processing conditions. For example, the hardness of a bakery product can be reduced by increasing its porosity. Ideally, we can create a desired texture of 3D-printed food for each individual consumer based on his/her preference, by varying macronutrient composition and printing design. Nevertheless, there is a lack of quantitative insights on the inter-related influences of macronutrient composition, printing design and/or post-processing conditions on food texture. Often, a trial-and-error and single-variance approach is used, which is not effective.

Our goal

lThis PhD project aims to break down the complexity of such a system by using an experimental design and data-driven approach, to understand and control texture of 3D-printed food independently from its composition: composition-texture decoupling.


The printability (i.e. extrudability and stability) of food inks varying in macronutrient composition will be quantified, which can be linked to the rheological properties of these inks. 3D structure of food with various geometric designs will be printed and post-processed. A so-called texture map relating post-processing, composition and printing design will be developed, to quantitatively describe the relation between composition and texture. Data-driven models can be developed based on experimental data, to predict textural properties of 3D-printed personalized food. These insights will hopefully allow for quicker launch of 3D-printed products in commercial markets.

This PhD project is part of the PRINTYOURFOOD NWO-TTW Project. It is a collaboration between Wageningen University & Research, Technical University of Eindhoven, TNO and three industrial partners (Gastronology, Ruitenberg Ingredients, LambWeston) and comprises in total 3 PhD projects. It is also part of the Digital Food Processing Initiative (