To improve and build on methods, models and data for understanding multi-stressor cumulative effects on biodiversity in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. These efforts will help to improve the assessments of the impacts of multiple stressors on biodiversity in different ecosystems covering different realms.
These assessments are expected to be used to guide policy and conservation efforts at regional, national and international scales. To that end we developed a cyclical three-step process (see figure) of which we propose to conduct two full cycles within the duration of the project. This cyclical process will be applied in three case studies (CSs):
- Typically terrestrial (i.e. Netherlands), in which we focus on the appropriate reconciliation of the different spatial scales of data sources used (e.g. national versus local)
- Typical marine (i.e. North Sea) where the impacts of land-based stressors are also considered
- Special case (the Wadden Sea) with both marine and terrestrial elements where different policy frameworks (i.e. Water Framework Directive, and Marine Strategy Framework Directive) may apply which has consequences for the biodiversity assessment methods and their data requirements.