RFLPs and minisatellites are labour-intensive markers because their analysis includes the time-consuming steps of Southern blotting, labeling of probes and hybridization. Therefore, PCR-based techniques are currently preferred, some of which can even be automated to decrease the labour-intensity. PCR sequencing may still be quite labour-intensive if performed by the old time-consuming method of performing four separate sequence reactions per sample. However, automated procedures have greatly reduced labour-intensity of PCR-sequencing. The labour-intensity of the other PCR-based techniques presented varies from low to medium, depending on the methodological procedures required in addition to PCR.