Project

POND

The research focussed on fish selection, nutrient dynamics and the role of fish ponds in existing farming systems through a concerted effort by various PhD students.

Objectives

Contribute to the development of more sustainable integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems (IAAS) with the aim to improve farm household livelihood.

Results

Some of the POND-LIVE projects were highly successful in establishing linkages between the various levels of production systems, mainly due to a better embedding in the farmers’ context and more frequent exchange of experience throughout the project. We recommend future projects to aim to contribute to the development of farming systems by involving stakeholders in defining the problems and in the identification of solutions.

To improve the contribution of aquaculture to poverty alleviation, fishes need to be selectively bred in low-input environments and the pond management needs to be based on the paradigm: “feed the pond to grow fish”. IAA farming systems deserve the support of research and extension in order to maintain their shock absorbing character, important for both social and economic sustainability. In particular, the medium sized mixed farms showed a high potential to reduce environmental impact and to contribute to ecological sustainability. The management of Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture farming systems requires a high level of farmers’ know-how that can be generated through a holistic approach to research and extension.


PhD - fish-1

PhD - fish-1

Selection for fast growth in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.in low-input earthen pond environments

PhD student: Harrison C. Karisa

Short description of the proposed research:

The aim of the project is to carry out a selective breeding program for fast growth in O. niloticus for low-input farm conditions and to study the effects of selection on associated performance traits. For this several sub-studies are needed:

  1. To estimate heritability and response to selection for growth in O. niloticus, in low-input ponds.
  2. To assess the efficiency of selection for low input target environments by defining the role of phenotypic plasticity and genotype by environment interaction.
  3. To investigate differences in low- and high- input selected lines with regard to metabolic energy expenditure and early or late maturity.

Comparison will be made with a sister selection program carried out under high input conditions with the hypotheses of no difference in heritability and response to selection for growth between the two lines and no significant genotype-environment interaction.

Composition of the scientific support project group:

Prof. Dr. J.A.J. Verreth, Supervisor, WUR / Aquaculture & Fisheries
Dr. Prof. V. Arendonk, Co-Supervisor, WUR /Animal Breeding & Genetics
Dr. ir. Henk Bovenhuis, Daily Supervisor, WUR /Animal Breeding & Genetics
ir. Hans Komen, Advisor, WUR /Animal Breeding & Genetics
Dr. Mahmoud Rezk, Advisor, WorldFish Center, Regional Research Center for Africa and West Asia, Abbassa, Egypt

Articles

Heritability of cold tolerance in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles; Charo-Karisa, H. ; Rezk, M.A. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Komen, J. \ 2005

Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles: modelling spatial correlations between hapas; Charo-Karisa, H. ; Komen, J. ; Rezk, M.A. ; Reynolds, S. ; Ponzoni, R.W. ; Bovenhuis, H. \ 2006

Decision Support System for Developing Community-Driven Water Quality Monitoring Plans; Tennakoon, S and R. Cawley


PhD - fish-2

PhD - fish-2

Selective breeding based on natural spawning & mate selection in Nile tilapia

PhD student: Yonas Fessehaye

Short description of the proposed research:

The general objective of this study is to investigate the natural mating system of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in ponds. According to the mate choice theory, individuals in some species prefer mates carrying dissimilar genes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) which may function to increase the MHC or overall heterozygosity of progeny. This MHC-heterozygosity of progeny is suspected to confer resistance to infectious diseases. Another objective is to reconstruct the family pedigree of naturally mating tilapia using microsatellite genotyping. This pedigree tracing will enable us to estimate progeny growth and survival without the need of separate rearing facilities or tagging of individuals. In addition, the rate of inbreeding, response to selection and other genetic parameters could be estimated under natural mating systems. Finally the information obtained will be translated to design a breeding strategy for a natural reproducing tilapia population where genetic gain is maximised with out compromising fitness due to inbreeding.
The project objectives are:

  1. Investigating the contribution of parents to the next generation and identify the factors that contribute to the differential reproductive success of parents under natural mating.
  2. To investigate if there is evidence for disassortative mating based on MHC gene variation in Oreochromis niloticus.
  3. Investigate the effect of inbreeding in both natural mating and paired matings.
  4. The information on mating structure, molecular pedigree and other genetic parameters will be used to develop a selective breeding program that maximises genetic gain with minimal accumulation of inbreeding.

Composition of the scientific support project group:

Dr. Prof. V. Arendonk Supervisor WUR /Animal Breeding & Genetics
Dr.ir. Hans Komen Co-Supervisor WUR /Animal Breeding & Genetics
Dr. ir. Henk Bovenhuis Advisor WUR /Animal Breeding & Genetics
Dr. Mahmoud Rezk Advisor WorldFish Center, RRC for Africa and West Asia, Abbassa, Egypt

Article

Prediction of cannibalism in juvenile Oreochromis niloticus based on predator to prey weight ratio, and effects of age and stocking density; Fessehaye, Y. ; Kabirb, A. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Komen, J. \ 2006

PhD - pond-1

PhD - pond-1

The role of fish ponds in nutrient dynamics of high and low input systems of mixed farming systems.

PhD student: Patricia Muendo

Short description of the proposed research:

The study hypothesis that nutrient dynamics in fish ponds will differ according to nutrient input level, which is related to the selected tilapia strains. Fishponds can play an important role in preserving nutrients and act as nutrient traps when pond sediment is used as fertilizer for agricultural crops. The study aims to explore the role of fishponds as nutrient traps to increase nutrient use efficiency of mixed farming systems. Therefore the student will:

  1. Quantify the temporal variation in nutrient availability and requirements in east-African land-based agriculture on the basis of literature data.
  2. Characterise nutrient dynamics in different tilapia culture environments (including high and low input systems and different strains of tilapia)
  3. Quantitatively describe the process of sludge formation and evaluate the value of sludge as a fertilizer in land-based agriculture.


Composition of the scientific support project group:

Prof. Dr. J.A.J. Verreth, Supervisor, WUR / Aquaculture & Fisheries
Dr. M.C.J. Verdegem, Daily Supervisor, WUR / Aquaculture & Fisheries
Dr ir. Jetse J. Stoorvogel, Co-Supervisor, WUR / Soil Science & Geology
Dr. Gamal El Naggar, Advisor, WorldFish Center, Regional Research Center for Africa and West Asia, Abbassa, Egypt

Article

Dissertation: The role of fish ponds in the nutrient dynamics of mixed farming systems [PhD thesis] Muendo, P.N. 2006

PhD - pond-2

PhD - pond-2

Productivity and Nutrient Accumulation in Integrated-Aquaculture Ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

PhD student: Dang Kieu Nhan

Short description of the proposed research:

The overall objective of this study is to analyse the role of fish ponds in integrated farming systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, in terms of nutrient dynamics, and to increase the overall nutrient efficiency of the farming systems by applying alternative management strategies. The specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. describe different existing fish production systems integrated within crop-animal-aquaculture farming systems, 
  2. investigate nutrient budgets in ponds, considering organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), 
  3. identify principal variables that influence water quality and bottom soil nutrient accumulation in ponds, and
  4. evaluate impacts of proposed technological interventions on fish production and pond nutrient use efficiency.

The field work of the study consists of two parts: (1) participatory rural appraisals to address the specific objective 1, and (2) participatory on-farm monitoring to address the specific objective 2 to 4.

Composition of the scientific support project group:

Prof. Dr. J.A.J. Verreth, Supervisor, WUR / Aquaculture & Fisheries
Dr. M.C.J. Verdegem, Co-Supervisor, WUR / Aquaculture & Fisheries
Dr. ir. J.J. Stoorvogel, Co-Supervisor, WUR / Soil Science & Geology
Dr. Le Thanh Duong, Advisor, Can Tho University/Farming Systems

PhD - pond-3

PhD - pond-3

Modeling fish growth with oxygen as a determinant in aquaculture systems.

PhD student: Tran Duy An

Short description of the proposed research:

The general objective of the research is to produce a fish growth simulation model for predicting the growth of a number of fish species based on temperature, oxygen, feed ration and feed composition. The reseach will focus on the hypothesis that oxygen is a major determinant of fish growth. Extensive review of the research on feed intake in fish has been done. Concepts of the model have been developed and a module of feed intake regulation by oxygen and glucose concentration will be incoporated to the model. Experiments on the effect of oxgen concentration on maximum feed intake will be conducted to obtain data for calibration and validation of the model for tilapia. In the meanwhile, available datasets on the growth of other species at varying oxygen concentrations will also be compiled and used to calibrate and validate the model.

Composition of the scientific support project group:

Prof. Dr. J.A.J. Verreth, Supervisor WUR / Aquaculture & Fisheries

Dr.ir. Anne van Dam, Advisor IHE, Delft

Dr. ir. Johan Schrama, Advisor WUR / Aquaculture & Fisheries

Articles

Modelling fish growth using the concentration of metabolites to regulate feed intake and metabolism Tran Duy, A. ; Dam, A.A. van; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Schrama, J.W. \ 2005

PhD - pond-4

PhD - pond-4

Organic matter and nutrients build up in fishpond sediment and their uses in agriculture

PhD student: Md. Mizanur Rahman

Short description of the proposed research:

Inland aquaculture is one of the promising livelihoods in Asian countries. However, a major part of organic and inorganic inputs to the ponds remain unused, which results in nutrient build up in ponds. Overtime, accumulation of sediments reduces the capacity of fishponds. Use of such pond sediment as fertilizer supplements in crop production has been practiced in many Asian countries. Although application of pond sediment increases crop yields, scientific information on the nutritive value of sediments under different culture management practices and its potential as a fertilizer supplement and soil conditioner is still scarce.
The overall objective of the study is to develop a strategy to use fishpond sediment in sustainable agriculture-aquaculture integrated farming systems. The specific objectives of this PhD study are to:

  1. Quantify organic matter and elementary nutrients accumulation in pond sediment of tilapia culture system,

  2. Measure the effects of pond sediment on soil physical and chemical properties,

  3. Quantify the effects of physical and chemical properties of pond sediment on crop yield

Composition of the scientific support project group:

Dr. Amararatne Yakupitiyage, Chairman, AARM, AIT-Bangkok
Dr. S.L. Ranamukhaarachchi, Co-chairman, ASE, AIT-Thailand
Dr. Yang Yi, Member, AARM, AIT-Bangkok-Thailand

Articles

Agricultural Use of Fishpond Sediment for Environmental Amelioration; Rahman Mizanur, Amararatne Yakupitiyage and S.L. Ranamukhaarachchi; Thammasat international Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 9(4),2004


PhD - pond-5

PhD - pond-5

Food utilization in semi-intensive pond polyculture systems

PhD student: Md. Mustafizur Rahman

Short description

To analyze the food utilization by rohu and common carp in intensively fertilized or fed polyculture ponds. The specific objectives are: 1. To monitor the types of food eaten and the feeding behavior of rohu, alone or in the presence of common carp, in fertilized or fed ponds. 2. To monitor the natural food quantity and quality, and the fish growth/production in ponds stocked with rohu alone or together with common carp in fertilized or fed ponds. 3. To quantify the contribution of the different types of natural foods and artificial feed to the production in ponds stocked with rohu, alone or in combination with common carp, in fed ponds.

PhD supervision team:

Prof. Dr Johan Verreth, supervisor, WU/ASG, Aquaculture & Fisheries
Dr. Marc Verdegem, co-supervisor, WU/ASG, Aquaculture & Fisheries
Dr. Abdul Md.Wahab, daily supervisor, Bangladesh Agriculture University, Mymensingh

Article

Dissertation: Food web interactions and nutrients dynamics in polyculture ponds [PhD thesis] Rahman, M.M. \ 2006

PhD - farm-1

PhD - farm-1

Changes in Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Systems: What is the balance in sustainability?

PhD student: Le Thanh Phong

Short description of the proposed research:

This study aims at fine-tuning the fish, livestock and crop components of the Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture (IAA) farming systems in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The research will focus on driving forces for changes of IAA systems, the characteristics and role of IAA systems in livelihood strategies as well as on the environmental issues related to the farming systems, i.e. productivity of the terrestrial and aquatic systems, the nutrient flows and balances of integrated systems, and environmental impacts. Different ecological, economic, and social indicators will be determined and quantified, to match the aquatic and terrestrial systems in the IAA systems. From that the match of sustainability indicators for introducing new technologies will be estimated. Further, the perception and adoption by farmers in the use of new technologies, and the prospects for exploiting sustainable development of IAA systems will be evaluated.

Composition of the scientific support project group:

Prof. Dr. ir. A.J. van der Zijpp, Supervisor, WUR / Animal Production Systems
Dr. ir. Henk M.J. Udo Daily, Supervisor, WUR / Animal Production Systems
Dr. ir. M.E.F. van Mensvoort, Co-Supervisor, WUR / Soil Science & Geology
Dr. Le Quang Tri, Advisor, Can Tho University, Viet Nam

Articles

Assessing and modelling farmers' decision-making on integrating aquaculture into agriculture in the Mekong Delta Bosma, R.H. ; Le Thanh Phong, ; Kaymak, U. ; Berg, J. van den; Udo, H.M.J. ; Mensvoort, M.E.F. van; Le Quang Tri, \ 2006

Poster presentation: Understanding Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Systems (IAA) in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD); Le Thang Phong, H.M.J Udo, M.E.F. van Mensvoort, Le Quang Tri, R.H. Bosma & Dang Kieu Nhan

PhD - farm-2

PhD - farm-2

Understanding Farmers’ Motivations to Integrate Livestock, Fish, and Crops through Analysis of Household Decision-making by Fuzzy Logic Modelling.

PhD student: Roel H. BOSMA

Short description of the proposed research:

The global trend within agriculture is specialisation, but in the deltas of Vietnam, mono-crop rice became integrated farming. The study aims to elucidate farmers’ motivations which enabled this change from mono-crops to integrated farming, by answering the following questions:

  1. What were farmers’ perceptions, motivations, and decisions during the rapid change-over to integrated systems in Vietnam?
  2. Can we model the farmers’ decision-making with fuzzy logic?
  3. Can we improve our understanding of the motivations to integrate various components in the farming practices?

Views on changes in farming are subject to a paradigm shift. Most models hardly consider farmers’ decisions-making, but fuzzy logic can handle subjective expressions.

Composition of the scientific support project group:

Prof. Dr. J.A.J. Verreth Supervisor WUR / Fish Culture & Fisheries
Dr. ir. Henk M.J. Udo Daily Supervisor WUR / Animal Production Systems
Dr ir Uzay Kaymak Advisor Erasmus University, Rotterdam
Dr ir Jan van den Berg Co-supervisor Erasmus University, Rotterdam
Prof Dr Leontine Visser Co-supervisor WUR / Rural Development Sociology

Articles


Fuzzy modelling of farmer motivations for integrated farming in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta Bosma, R.H. ; Kaymak, U. ; Berg, J. van den; Udo, H.M.J. \ 2005

Farmers’ Decision-making on Integrating Aquaculture into Agriculture Systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Basin; IAAS in Vietnam (Article proposed for NJAS special INREF issue); R.H. Bosma, Le Thanh Phong, Uzay Kaymak, J. van den Berg, H.M.J. Udo, M.E.F. van Mensvoort and Le Quang Tri.

Poster presentation: Motivation of farmers in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to integrate aquaculture in their production system; Bosma Roel H., Cao Quoc Nam, Pham Minh Duc, Henk M.J. Udo & Johan

A.J. Verreth.

Don’t accumulate but integrate farm components for higher profits; Bosma R.H., Cao Quoc Nam, H. M. Udo, J. Verreth



PhD - farm-3

PhD - farm-3

Sources of nutrients in the rural households of Bangladesh and their optimum utilization through integrated pond-dike systems

PhD student: Md. Shamsul Kabir

Short description of the proposed research:

Excessive use of nutrients in high input farming systems and the lower level of nutrient use in low input systems affect production and environment adversely. It has been suggested that integrated pond-dike system scan contribute to improved nutrient management on rural farm households and to sustainable aquaculture-agriculture production. In this context the proposed research is carried out:
• To compare the nutrient use efficiency in low and high input pond-dike system
• To assess the nutrient flow in the whole farm households
• To enhance pond production through introduction of tilapia with carp
• To explore the benefits of nutrient enriched pond water and mud for vegetable production

• To identify a guide line for sustainable integrated pond-dike systems.

Composition of the scientific support project group:

Supervisor: Dr. Md. Abdul Wahab, Department of Fisheries Management (DFM)
Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) Mymensingh, Bangladesh .
Co-Supervisor: Dr. Somen Dewan, DFM / BAU, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Co-Supervisor: Dr. M. Aminul Islam, Dep. of Fisheries Biology and Genetics, BAU.
Advisor: Dr. Marc C.J. Verdegem, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Wageningen University.
Advoisor: Dr. Dave C. Little, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK.

Article

Nutrient flow in whole farm households: a case study in a village of Muktagach Upazila under Mymensingh district, Bangladesh Kabir, M.S. ; Wahab, M.A. ; Karim, M. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. ; Little, D.C. \ 2005

PhD - livelihood-1

PhD - livelihood-1

Links between pond and dike, potential and impacts on livelihood - a prospect of integrated aquaculture system in Bangladesh.

Ph.D student: Manjurul Karim

Short description of the proposed research:

The impacts of integration between crops around fishponds have been identified as a major rational for the promotion of aquaculture in developing countries. Developing countries like Bangladesh with a high population pressure need to develop a appropriate process for utilising the small piece of land efficiently to cope up with the future food demand. The development of pond dike-based cropping have rarely been supported by extension agents and researchers. Its broad impact on livelihood through income and nutrition have been neglected by policy makers.
The research aims to analyse the importance of pond-dike system in integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems in the rural & peri-urban area, not only in terms of fish/vegetable production but also as water storage for irrigation, farming nutrient cycling, every day family use and market access of the products. The specific objectives of the PhD research:

• To determine the impact of pond-dike systems on the livelihoods in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh.

• To identify the degree of association between seasonality and livelihood in relation to site, wellbeing, gender

and characteristics of integration pond-dike systems.
• To investigate the effect of introducing Tilapia into existing poly-culture systems in terms of economic benefit
and impact on the broader pond-dike system.
• To understand the institutional context of promoting pond-dike based agricultural diversification.

Supervision team:

Supervisor: Dr. David Little Stirling University, Stirling, FK94LA, Scotland
Co-supervisor: Dr. Trivour Telfer Stirling University, Stirling, FK94LA, Scotland
Local Supervisor: Dr. Md. Abdul Wahab Faculty of Fisheries, BAU, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

Article

SEASONAL INTEGRATION OF WATER USE BETWEEN FISH PONDS AND ASSOCIATED HORTICULTURE-CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ADOPTION IN MYMENSINGH, BANGLADESH. ;Manjurul Karim *, David C. Little, Md. Abdul Wahab, Md. Shamsul Kabir and Marc C.J Verdegem