Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw berekend met NEMA voor 1990-2019

Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A.; Groenestein, C.M.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Lagerwerf, L.A.; Luesink, H.H.; Ros, M.B.H.; Velthof, G.L.; Vonk, J.; Zee, T. van der


In the Netherlands, agricultural activities are a major source of gaseous emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon dioxide (CO2) from lime fertilisers and urea fertiliser, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). In 2019, NH3 emissions from livestock manure, fertiliser and other sources on farms and hobby farms, from private use and from manure application in terrestrial ecosystems amounted to 112.0 million kg NH3, 6.2 million kg less than in 2018. This decrease was due mainly to the reduction in the size of the dairy herd. Emissions of N2O in 2019 were 18.8 million kg, 0.6 million kg less than in 2018. Emissions of NO in 2019 amounted to 21.7 million kg, 0.7 million kg less than in 2018. Emissions of CH4 decreased from 484 to 480 million kg due to the smaller dairy herd. Emissions of NMVOC amounted to 87.8 million kg in 2019, down from 89.6 million kg in 2018. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 decreased from 5.9 in 2018 to 5.4 million kg in 2019 and PM2.5 emissions decreased from 0.6 to 0.5 million kg. Emissions of CO2 from lime fertilisers and urea decreased from 83.1 to 80.1 million kg. Based on new data for several factors which are described in this report, emission figures have been updated for a number of years in the time series since 1990. Emissions of NH3 from livestock manure have fallen by two-thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretion rates of livestock and the introduction of low-emission manure application. Emissions of N2O and NO decreased over this period by 42% and 35% respectively, less markedly than the NH3 reduction because of higher emissions from manure injection (compared with surface spreading manure) and a shift from excretion on pasture to excretion in animal houses. Emissions of CH4 decreased by 18% between 1990 and 2019 due to a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed use efficiency of dairy cattle. Emissions of PM10 increased by 9% in the same period due to laying poultry farms switching from housing systems with liquid manure to systems with solid manure.