Bracon brevicornis genome showcases the potential of linked-read sequencing in identifying a putative Complementary sex determiner gene

Ferguson, Kim B.; Pannebakker, Bart A.; Centurión, Alejandra; Heuvel, Joost van den; Nieuwenhuis, Ronald; Becker, Frank F.M.; Schijlen, Elio; Thiel, Andra; Zwaan, Bas J.; Verhulst, Eveline C.


Bracon brevicornis is an ectoparasitoid of a wide range of larval-stage Lepidopterans, including several pests of important crops, such as the corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. It is also one of the earliest documented cases of complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera. Here, we present the linked-read-based genome of B. brevicornis, complete with an ab initio-derived annotation and protein comparisons with fellow braconids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasma alloeum. We demonstrate the potential of linked-read assemblies in exploring regions of heterozygosity and search for structural and homology-derived evidence of the complementary sex determiner gene (csd).