To address the problem of water scarcity and to achieve food self-sufficiency, huge efforts and massive irrigation developments have been made in the last twenty five years by the Ethiopian Government. However, poor irrigation water management has been one of the major factors challenging the success and the sustainability of may small-scale irrigation schemes in the country. The issue of sustainability is given little attention. The thesis attempted to assess, understand and evaluate the current irrigation water management practices in relation to crop yield and soil salinization in Gumselassa irrigation scheme, Northern Ethiopia, and then, come-up with simple and innovative irrigation water management strategies than can influence the farmers’ decision and enable them to cope with the problem of water scarcity and soil salinity. The study combined households’ and scheme level assessments, field experiments and long term modelling to determine their potential for sustainable production of the irrigation schemes.