Project

Data in genetische bronnen

The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is an international agreement aimed at the implementation of  the third objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity (the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilisation of genetic resources). It came into force on 12 October, 2014. The Nagoya Protocol has one objective: the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. This objective comes from the fact, that states have the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies (Article 3 of the CBD). By 10th August, 2017, 100 countries had ratified the Nagoya Protocol, including 39 African countries , 25 European countries, and the EU. The Nagoya Protocol aims to ensure that benefits arising from utilisation of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge are shared with the provider country. Utilisation of genetic resources, as defined in Article 2 of the Protocol, means to conduct research and development on the genetic and/or biochemical composition of genetic resources, including through the application of biotechnology. During the Second Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing (NP COP/MOP 2) in December 2016, the issue of digital sequence information (DSI) was discussed in length and created a lot of controversy. There was  no agreement whether DSI should be treated in the same way as genetic resources and whether the use of DSI on genetic resources without the resources themselves, should trigger benefit sharing obligations. Parties to the CBD and the Nagoya Protocol have observed  that rapid advances in the use of DSI have occurred, and established a process to further analyse this cross-cutting issue (CBD/COP XIII, Decision 16. Digital sequenc

De uitwisseling van genetische bronnen (tussen landen) is internationaal gereguleerd via het Nagoya Protocol van het Biodiversiteitsverdrag (CBD), terwijl voor plantaardige genetische bronnen tevens het Internationaal Verdrag inzake plantgenetische hulpbronnen voor voedsel en landbouw (ITPGRFA) van toepassing is. Verder is intellectueel eigendom internationaal gereguleerd in een aantal verdragen, zoals het Internationaal Verdrag tot bescherming van kweekprodukten (UPOV Verdrag) en de Overeenkomst inzake handelsaspecten van intellectueel eigendom (TRIPS) van de Wereldhandelsorganisatie (WTO).

Dit project maakt inzichtelijk wat het belang en de potentie zijn van DSI voor het behoud en het duurzaam gebruik van genetische bronnen en voor voedselzekerheid. De voor- en nadelen van verschillende vormen an regulering van de toegang tot en het gebruik van DSI zullen worden geïnventariseerd, en verschillende scenarios zullen worden vergeleken.

Publicaties