When pesticides are used in normal agricultural practice, they are frequently used in time, they are simultaneously used at the same time and they are simultaneously used in adjacent parcels of arable land in the same polder.
Because the admission of pesticides is a compound-by-compound approach, it is unclear if and at what extent realistic exposures scenarios based on dominant crops in The Netherlands, provide sufficient protection to aquatic organisms in ditches adjacent to arable land and at the higher landscape scale. The last question is also relevant in the light of the application of the recovery option: what are the consequences of frequent exposures in space and time for the acceptance of recovery in the effect assessment ? The current project is a multidisciplinary project involving Alterra and PRI.
The aim of the current report is to present a State-of-the-Art of multistress based on a literature review. The main questions to be answered are:
- is there a need to consider multistress in the exposure assessment and if so, how and when should this be effectuated ?
- is there a need to consider multistress in the effect assessment and if so, how and when should this be effectuated ?
- is there a need to consider multistress in the exposure assessment based on drift and if so, how should this be effectuated ?
Including multistress in the risk assessment of plant protection products : current state of knowledge, based on a literature review and an evaluation of tank mixture applications in a spraying schedule for strawberriesWageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2793) - p.