This study deals with the causes and consequences of technical change in agriculture. It shows changes in farming methods in the Dutch province of Groningen during the period 1800-1910. The adoption of new methods (such as the cultivation of clover, more frequent hoeing, drainage and convertible husbandry) led to a sharp decline of the area left fallow, an increase of the area under crops, and an expansion of livestock production. Output rose considerably, although this was less than the population growth; there was an increase in output per hectare, while labour productivity did not rise until 1890. It is argued that market prices and factor endowments had a decisive influence on the technical development. Landsaving and labour-intensive techniques were adopted in a period of expanding demand for agricultural products, rising land prices and a growing supply of labour.