This study compares the immune responses and protection induced by intra-typic heterologous vaccination with that induced by homologous vaccination against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and protection against challenge with FMDV O Taiwan were examined in a non-vaccinated group, a group vaccinated with O Taiwan FMD vaccine and a group vaccinated with O Manisa FMD vaccine. Five pigs from each group were challenged with FMDV type O Taiwan 14 days after vaccination and five other pigs were contact-exposed to the inoculated pigs. Both homologous and heterologous vaccination protected against challenge with FMDV O Taiwan at 2 weeks after vaccination. In the heterologous vaccinated group, cross-neutralizing antibody titres against O Taiwan could be detected although the ratio `r1¿ was 0.4, which was significantly smaller than the critical r-value. Cell-mediated immune responses were detected after both homologous and heterologous vaccination. Virus-induced in vitro lymphocyte (cross-) proliferation and production of both a Th1-type (IFN-¿) and a Th2-type (IL-10) cytokine response were demonstrated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).