Limited BVDV transmission and full protection against CSFV transmission in pigs experimentally infected with BVDV type 1b

Wieringa-Jelsma, H.; Quak, J.; Loeffen, W.L.A.


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in pigs may interfere with the detection and epidemiology of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). To investigate the importance of BVDV infections in pigs, first we studied the transmission dynamics of a recent BVDV field isolate. Subsequently, the protection of BVD antibodies against transmission and clinical disease of CSF virus was studied. Only limited transmission of BVDV occurred (R = 0.20), while no CSFV transmission occurred in pigs with BVDV antibodies. We concluded that BVDV transmission among pigs is possible, but seems to be limited and thus the virus should disappear from a population if no new introductions occur. Furthermore, the presence of BVD antibodies may completely prevent the transmission of CSFV and therefore could protect pigs against classical swine fever. It was also noticed that double infections with BVDV and CSFV were incorrectly diagnosed using the neutralization peroxidase linked assay (NPLA), which is the golden standard for antibody detection. This might hamper the diagnosis of CSF in herds with a high BVD prevalence