The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of climate change on emerging food safety hazards in the dairy production chain. For this purpose, a holistic approach was used to select critical factors from inside and outside the production chain that are affected by climatic factors. An expert judgement study was conducted to identify and to rank the most important critical factors with relation to emerging food safety hazards in the Dutch dairy production chain. Results included major critical factors affecting the occurrence of food safety hazards when the climate will change in variable and extreme weather conditions, e.g. an increasing temperature and excessive rainfall. The experts mentioned feed-related issues (raw materials, pasture, silage, storage, and manufacturing of compound feed) and animal health as the most important critical factors that affect the occurrence of food safety hazards due to climate change. Feed manufacturing and animal health need to be closely monitored in order to anticipate on climate change effects. The results of the present study can be used as basic elements of an Emerging Risk Detection Support System (ERDSS), a system for stakeholders from industry and government to identify and control emerging hazards in the dairy production chain.