Gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to differentiate the fats of cow, goat, sheep, water buffalo, donkey, horse and camel milk (n = 20 for each species). Principal component analysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) composition allowed classification into groups according to species; profiles from species of greater genetic similarity were more alike. According to TAG profiles, cow, water buffalo, sheep and goat milk fat were grouped together, as were horse and donkey milk fat, whereas camel milk fat was in a third group. DSC was used to study the melting of milk fat. Similarities were apparent from melting data of cow, water buffalo, sheep and goat milk fat, while clear distinctions could again be made between these milk fats and horse and camel milk fat. Correlating TAG and DSC data highlighted that predominantly the higher molecular weight TAGs (C40 and greater) determined the DSC melting profiles for the various species.