Amorphous carbon nanoparticles: a versatile label for rapid diagnostic (immuno)assays

Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Wichers, J.H.; Koets, M.; Berendsen, L.B.J.M.; Amerongen, A. van


Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) labeled with reporter molecules can serve as signaling labels in rapid diagnostic assays as an alternative to gold, colored latex, silica, quantum dots, or up-converting phosphor nanoparticles. Detailed here is the preparation of biomolecule-labeled CNPs and examples of their use as a versatile label. CNPs can be loaded with a range of biomolecules, such as DNA, antibodies, and proteins (e.g., neutravidin or a fusion protein of neutravidin with an enzyme), and the resulting conjugates can be used to detect analytes of high or low molecular mass.