Environmental change is an acknowledged factor influencing human migration. Analytical research regarding the relationship between the environment and human migration has increased in recent years yet still faces numerous hurdles, partly due to limited availability of suitable data. We review available data and methodologies for investigating the environment-migration nexus, identifying data inconsistencies resulting from the combination of different sources and illustrating the underlying reasons for them. We discuss a number of methods for investigating the environment-migration relationship, including frameworks and concepts; surveys; empirical, quantitative methods; and simulation approaches. Based on this overview, we offer recommendations for improved analyses of the environment-migration nexus including reporting data inconsistencies and uncertainties, combining approaches and data sources, and developing multiple-study approaches.