Genetic versus antigenic differences among highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses : Consequences for vaccine strain selection

Peeters, Ben; Reemers, Sylvia; Dortmans, Jos; Vries, Erik de; Jong, Mart de; Zande, Saskia van de; Rottier, Peter J.M.; Haan, Cornelis A.M. de


Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses display a remarkable genetic and antigenic diversity. We examined to what extent genetic distances between several H5N1 viruses from different clades correlate with antigenic differences and vaccine performance. H5-specific antisera were generated, and cross-reactivity and antigenic distances between 12 different viruses were determined. In general, antigenic distances increased proportional to genetic distances although notable exceptions were observed. Antigenic distances correlated better with genetic variation in 27 selected, antigenically-relevant H5 residues, than in the complete HA1 domain. Variation in these selected residues could accurately predict the antigenic distances for a novel H5N8 virus. Protection provided by vaccines against heterologous H5N1 challenge viruses indicated that cross-protection also correlates better with genetic variation in the selected antigenically-relevant residues than in complete HA1. When time is limited, variation at these selected residues may be used to accurately predict antigenic distance and vaccine performance.