Survey of moniliformin in wheat- and corn-based products using a straightforward analytical method

Herrera, Marta; Dam, Ruud van; Spanjer, Martien; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Mol, Hans; Nijs, Monique de; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia


A straightforward analytical method was developed and validated to determine the mycotoxin moniliformin in cereal-based foods. Moniliformin is extracted with water and quantified with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and its presence confirmed with liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was validated for flour, bread, pasta and maize samples in terms of linearity, matrix effect, recovery, repeatability and limit of quantification. Quantification was conducted by matrix-matched calibration. Positive samples were confirmed by standard addition. Recovery ranged from 77 to 114% and repeatability from 1 to 14%. The limit of quantification, defined as the lowest concentration tested at which the validation criteria of recovery and repeatability were fulfilled, was 10 μg/kg. The method was applied to 102 cereal-based food samples collected in the Netherlands and Germany. Moniliformin was not detected in bread samples. One of 22 flour samples contained moniliformin at 10.6 μg/kg. Moniliformin occurred in seven out of 25 pasta samples at levels around 10 μg/kg. Moniliformin (MON) was present in eight out of 23 maize products at levels ranging from 12 to 207 μg/kg.