Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B<sub>1</sub>, fumonisin B<sub>1</sub> and deoxynivalenol in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor

Pagkali, Varvara; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Makarona, Eleni; Peters, Jeroen; Haasnoot, Willem; Jobst, Gerhard; Moser, Isabella; Gajos, Katarzyna; Budkowski, Andrzej; Economou, Anastasios; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Kakabakos, Sotirios E.


A label-free optical biosensor for the fast simultaneous determination of three mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON), in beer samples is presented. The biosensor is based on an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) monolithically integrated along with their respective broad-band silicon light sources onto a single chip. Multi-analyte determination is accomplished by functionalizing the sensing arms of individual MZIs with mycotoxin-protein conjugates. Assay is performed by pumping over the chip mixtures of calibrators or samples with a mixture of specific monoclonal antibodies, followed by reaction with a secondary anti-mouse IgG antibody. Reactions are monitored in real-time by continuously recording the MZI output spectra, which are then subjected to Discrete Fourier Transform to convert spectrum shifts to phase shifts. The detection limits achieved for AFB1, FB1 and DON were 0.8, 5.6 and 24 ng/ml, respectively, while the assay duration was 12 min. Recovery values ranging from 85 to 115% were determined in beer samples spiked with known concentrations of the three mycotoxins. In addition, beers of different types and origin were analysed with the biosensor developed and the results were compared with those provided by established laboratory methods, further supporting the accuracy of the proposed device.