There is a large reservoir of manure in the Netherlands which can become a source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and of residues of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. This can have consequences not only for public health but also for the health of animals and of the environment (One Health). However, it is not clear yet what the exact consequences thereof can be. At the same time, a process of change is taking place through which to make Dutch livestock production systems more sustainable. This research aims to reflect on the problem field of AMR and residues of veterinary medicines in the chain formed by livestock, manure, and ecosystems (soil and water) in the context of the future animal husbandry. Particularly, within the scope of circular agriculture. This from a technical, ecological, agronomic and policy perspective to enable the identification of relevant questions and dilemmas.