This report contains an analysis of four provincial strategies for realising the national ecological network: (1) private conservation; (2) area-based processes; (3) monitoring and enforcement; (4) buffer zone policy. The study was carried out for the Second Reflexive Evaluation of the Nature Pact by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) and Wageningen University & Research (WUR). We investigated the expectations for and results of these strategies during the period from 2011 to 2019. Initially the provincial governments had high expectations of the private conservation strategy for the establishment of new nature by farmers and private individuals. In practice this proved to be much more difficult than anticipated, particularly for farmers. Much new nature is established in area-based processes, which are now more sectoral in approach than they were in the past. Although these processes are often based on voluntary action, the provinces are increasingly turning to full compensation and land expropriation, particularly to meet obligations under EU legislation. Monitoring and enforcement in conservation management and a policy of establishing buffer zones around the national ecological network are relatively new strategies and little practical experience has yet been gained with them.