The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is an economically important crop worldwide. Many aspects of its cultivation are well known, except for the precise biological triggers for its fructification. By and large, for most basidiomycete species, nutrient availability, light and a drop in temperature are critical factors for fructification. A. bisporus deviates from this pattern in the sense that it does not require light for fructification. Furthermore its fructification seems to be inhibited by a self-generated factor which needs to be removed by microorganisms in order to initiate fruiting. This review explores what is known about the morphogenesis of fruiting initiation in A. bisporus, the microflora, the self-inhibitors for fruiting initiation and transcription factors involved. This information is subsequently contrasted with an overall model of the regulatory system involved in the initiation of the formation of primordia in basidiomycetes. The comparison reveals a number of the blank spots in our understanding of the fruiting process in A. bisporus.