Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Cultivated lettuce is believed to be domesticated from L. serriola; however, its origins and domestication history remain to be elucidated. Here, we sequenced a total of 445 Lactuca accessions, including major lettuce crop types and wild relative species, and generated a comprehensive map of lettuce genome variations. In-depth analyses of population structure and demography revealed that lettuce was first domesticated near the Caucasus, which was marked by loss of seed shattering. We also identified the genetic architecture of other domestication traits and wild introgressions in major resistance clusters in the lettuce genome. This study provides valuable genomic resources for crop breeding and sheds light on the domestication history of cultivated lettuce.