Genetic Linkage and Physical Mapping for an Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus cornucopiae) and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Cap Color

Zhang, Yan; Gao, Wei; Sonnenberg, Anton; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Jinxia; Huang, Chenyang


Oyster mushrooms are grown commercially worldwide, especially in many developing countries, for their easy cultivation and high biological efficiency. Pleurotus cornucopiae is one of the main oyster mushroom species because of its gastronomic value and nutraceutical properties. Cap color is an important trait, since consumers prefer dark mushrooms, which are now represented by only a small portion of the commercial varieties. Breeding efforts are required to improve quality-related traits to satisfy various demands of consumers. Here, we present a saturated genetic linkage map of P. cornucopiae constructed by using a segregating population of 122 monokaryons and 3,449 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by the 2b-RAD approach. The map contains 11 linkage groups covering 961.6 centimorgans (cM), with an average marker spacing of 0.27 cM. The genome of P. cornucopiae was de novo sequenced, resulting in 425 scaffolds (>1,000 bp) with a total genome size of 35.1 Mb. The scaffolds were assembled to the pseudochromosome level with the assistance of the genetic linkage map. A total of 97% SNP markers (3,357) were physically localized on 140 scaffolds that were assigned to 11 pseudochromosomes, with a total of 32.5 Mb, representing 92.5% of the whole genome. Six quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling cap color of P. cornucopiae were detected, accounting for a total phenotypic variation of 65.6%, with the highest value for the QTL on pseudochromosome 5 (18%). The results of our study provide a solid base for marker-assisted breeding for agronomic traits and especially for studies on biological mechanisms controlling cap color in oyster mushrooms. IMPORTANCE Oyster mushrooms are produced and consumed all over the world. Pleurotus cornucopiae is one of the main oyster mushroom species. Dark-cap oyster mushrooms are becoming more and more popular with consumers, but dark varieties are rare on the market. Prerequisites for efficient breeding programs are the availability of high-quality whole genomes and genetic linkage maps. Genetic studies to fulfill some of these prerequisites have hardly been done for P. cornucopiae. In this study, we de novo sequenced the genome and constructed a saturated genetic linkage map for P. cornucopiae. The genetic linkage map was effectively used to assist the genome assembly and identify QTL that genetically control the trait cap color. As well, the genome characteristics of P. cornucopiae were compared to the closely related species Pleurotus ostreatus. The results provided a basis for understanding the genetic background and marker-assisted breeding of this economically important mushroom species.