This thesis aimed to reconstruct historic European land cover/use and its changes for the period from 1900 to 2010 on 1 km spatial resolution for five different land categories (settlement, cropland, forest, grassland, other land). The main objective of this thesis was to explore new reconstruction methods that improve the spatial and temporal detail and reduce the uncertainty in historic land change estimates at continental level by better using available data sources (e.g. historic maps, old encyclopaedia or recent remote sensing products). The main objective was achieved by providing a full representation of all land changes (gains and losses) at continental scale in order to capture all major land change processes and their dynamics for Europe throughout the last century. The thesis also explored the implications of those change dynamics on environmental and biogeochemical research, such as climate change research.