Climate plays a powerful and diverse role in ecosystems all over the world. These changes, including the change of temperature, water availability, light and nutrients during seed development, maturation and after dispersal, can strongly affect seed performance. Three different strategies to investigate the influence of environmental conditions on seed performance in Arabidopsis were used in this research. For the first strategy, seeds were produced in different growing conditions (light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, phosphate). In the second strategy, seeds were produced in a field during different seasons (summer, autumn, winter and spring). The third strategy, a collection of 300 natural accessions of Arabidopsis from the Iberian Peninsula were used and correlation analysis using the geographical and environmental data of these accessions with phenotypic traits was inspected to provide insight in the effect that the environment may have had on the evolution of the regulation of the different phenotypic traits.