Medicines and drugs will enter the sewage after consumption via human urine and feces, as well as disposal. These compounds could be toxic to ecosystem and human health. However, current sewage treatment processes cannot efficiently remove these compounds. We studied the application of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) compounds in biological and chemical methods to remove these compounds in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic conditions). Our results show that using Fe(III) or Mn(IV) under anaerobic conditions is feasible, and even better for some compounds. In biological methods, the methods are promising in removal metoprolol and propranolol. In chemical methods, diclofenac is better removed under anaerobic conditions. These Mn(IV) and Fe(III) can be regenerated, and the Mn(IV) and Fe(III)-containing materials, originating from drinking water production plants, are suitable for chemical removal of medicines from water. The process is promising in application and I propose to use these processes in full-scale application.