Detect the Land Use Land Cover Change of Hawassa (1995 - 2014) using Maximum Likelihood Classification on ArcGIS
By Melkamu Gessesse (Ethiopia)
Land Use and Land Cover (LULCC) is one of the challenges which influence the process of urbanization process and the livelihood situation of Ethiopia in general and in the city of Hawassa in particular. The study area covered 60 km2 which had previously undergone substantial land use and land cover changes, mainly due to high population pressure. The main objective of this study was to investigate the rate of LULCC in the city of Hawassa and its influence on the household livelihoods in expanded areas. To undertake the study, Landsat satellite images of 1995, 2000, 2003, 2010, 2013 and 2014 were downloaded from USGS Archive under the path/row extent of 168/55. Geo-information Science (GIS) techniques were used to assess the changes and to generate the LULCC maps for selected periods. The changes in LULC which occurred from 1995 to 2014 in the study area, were classified using screen digitizing on ArcMap. supplemented by field observation. Observations showed that within 20 years the period between 1995 and 2014 most agricultural areas and some vegetation covers have been decreasing at a rate of 1313.47 ha and 225.48 ha respectively. The rate of change, direction, pattern and effects of the changes were also visualized from the generated maps.
The household data was collected from 45 household respondents using in-depth and informal interviews focussed on socio-economic, household livelihood, accessibility of infrastructure and environmental conditions of the expanded areas in the city. The result shown as growing population pressure, the increasing demand for urban land, poor institutional and socio-economic settings, unimplemented government policies, and poor infrastructure services were the major problems behind the LULC changes. The spatial and temporal interaction related to infrastructure and household livelihoods in expanded areas were also consulted. Households have been performing copying strategies to overcome the problems of living cost. Among the copying strategies street vending, shopping, daily labourers in construction sites, petti-business, wood work, and metal works are the main mentionable activities clearly seen in the expanded areas. These copying strategies helped for Households to adapt the new urban environment. Based on the findings of this study, GIS and remote sensing are the most possible techniques for mapping, classification and validation of the outcomes. These all are concerning LULCC across a range of spatial and temporal scales.
Keywords: land use land cover changes; GIS and remote sensing; population pressure; Household livelihoods