Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) which aims at achieving sustainable agricultural development for food security under climate change is a promising solution. CSA technologies at farm level have the potential to address these challenges but they are not adequately adopted. This PhD research, focused on understanding what restricts the adequate adoption of potential CSA technologies in South Africa and how can adoption of such technologies by smallholder farmers be enhanced. Findings revealed several CSA technologies exist that are directed to attain improved food security, increased resilience, and low-emissions in the face of a changing climate. Both the end-users (i.e. farmers) and providers of CSA technologies experienced barriers, leading to insufficient adoption. Agri-technology providers’ business models and characteristics of technologies influenced the decisions of farmers to adopt CSA technologies. Furthermore, results highlight that taking into considerations both farmers and agri-technology providers perspectives is suitable in understanding adoption and diffusion challenges.