Greening flood protection (GFP) reflects a novel approach in Dutch flood protection policy and practice. Instead of using hard constructions ‘soft’ and more nature-friendly solutions are employed that use natural dynamics, enhance the ecosystem and combine flood protection and nature functions. How knowledge in GFP decision-making enables or constrains GFP is put central in this thesis. The objective is to improve the understanding of knowledge in GFP decision-making and learn how knowledge in GFP decision-making can be improved to support GFP in flood protection projects.
This research makes a theoretical contribution to the Ways of Knowing (WoK) model, a relatively new route in knowledge in decision-making literature. The WoK model is complemented with the Policy Arrangement concept in the conceptual framework of interacting knowledge arrangements (KAs). In this framework KA’s, or knowledge-cum-policy fields, are regarded as coherent and dynamic wholes that interact. Application of the conceptual framework in three Dutch case studies – the Sand Engine, Afsluitdijk and the Markermeer dikes – indicate that integration between KAs enables GFP in flood protection projects. To achieve integration KAs should be more or less balanced in terms of strength (and not one dominating the other) and designs should have added value for both KAs (and not serve flood protection or nature only).