Humanity is facing various sustainability challenges. Different initiatives, such as the sustainable development goals of the United Nations are introduced to deal with these challenges. Several researchers conducted studies to identify sustainability competencies (SCs) which are required to contribute to realizing a more sustainable future. These studies are typically conducted based on Western worldviews. As a result, the SC frameworks which exist do not take non-Western worldviews, nor their contexts and related indigenous knowledge (IK) into account. This dissertation argues that for sustainability challenges to be effectively addressed at global level, integrating non-Western perspectives in the development of SCs is essential. The 2021 UNESCO report ‘Reimagining our futures together: A new social contract for education’ strongly advocates the inclusion of IK in education worldwide. The dissertation articulated the SCs which are specifically needed in this respect and assessed teaching methods by which they can be developed in higher education.