The thesis discusses how to track the Sustainable Development Goals, ambitious goals agreed in 2015 by all governments in the world, using a novel SDG Index and Dashboards. It estimates financing needs and explores the combination of public and private resources required to finance the SDGs in developing countries. Building on this needs assessment, the thesis reviews lessons from mobilizing development assistance to finance the successful achievement of ambitious health goals over the last 15 years, notably through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. It analyses the unique design characteristics of the Global Fund, including its Technical Review Panel, and considers lessons for the financing of the Sustainable Development Goals, notably in the areas of education and health systems. The questions considered in the thesis are of significant policy interest in the run-up to the September 2018 Summit on Financing the Sustainable Development Goals in New York.