In the context of the proposal of the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education in response to a public concern about exposure to phthalates via consumption of bottled water, phthalate concentrations in Iranian bottled water stored under various conditions were analysed. In addition, a risk assessment for combined exposure was performed based on urinary levels of phthalates measured in children and adolescents to assess the risks resulting from the total exposure to phthalates from all routes and sources. According to the obtained results, an increase in temperature and/or in the duration of storage increases phthalate migration. However, the results of the risk assessment showed that the estimated risk for single or cumulative combined phthalate exposure was negligible and that drinking water, as a monitored source for external exposure, has a very small contribution to total daily intake of phthalates.
The results of phthalates exposure assessment based on human biomonitoring data confirmed this conclusion and demonstrated that Iranian children and adolescents are exposed to low levels of phthalate mixtures but that the resulting estimated level of exposure to phthalates would not raise a safety concern.