Currently, fungicides are used to protect potato plants from late blight disease, the most damaging disease of potatoes. Modifying potato plants with genes from resistant wild potato relatives can alleviate the environmental damage caused by regular chemical use. Before introducing a GM crop, risks to the environment should be assessed, including any possible effects to insects or other associated organisms. The focus of this thesis was on developing and testing methods and protocols for assessing risks that GM crops may pose to the environment. This was done by studying the interactions between the modified potato, the disease, and pest and beneficial insects usually found on potato plants: from gene regulation and insect performance in the greenhouse, to effects on insect biodiversity in the field, the interactions were explored at different scales. The results will improve current risk assessments protocols, and guide agricultural policy for future biotechnological developments.