Community families throughout tropical regions derive an important share of their income from multiple forest products, with generally positive outcomes on their livelihoods. In this thesis, I evaluated the socioeconomic and ecological viability of an important multiple-use forest management scheme widely practiced by community families in the Bolivian Amazon: the production of Amazon or Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and timber from other tree species. We found that the harvest of these products is compatible given certain socioeconomic and biophysical conditions. This compatibility is possible due to existing complementarity between forest and non-forest activities, family heads negotiation skills to obtain better prices for Amazon nut and willingness to carry more management practices to increase Amazon nut production (e.g., liana cutting), a generally positive impact of logging intensity levels as practiced in the region on Amazon nut and on most commercial timber species and as long as commercial timber species differential response to harvesting is accounted for at the time of managing these species. These results urge policy-makers and local stakeholders to revalorize local ecological knowledge first, and to support the development of management tools that could help reduce management costs of tropical forests at the required level.