Onderwerp scriptie

Assessment of environmental impacts of intensive pig production system in Mekong Delta, Vietnam – Tran Van Nhan

Pig production is known as one of the contributors to climate change because it emits gases with environmental impacts. In this study we estimated environmental impacts of intensive pig production in the Mekong Delta. We used life cycle assessment (LCA) to estimate global warming potential (GWP), land use, fossil energy use, eutrophication potential (EP) and acidification potential (AP). This study showed that decreasing the feed conversion ratio, changing the feed formulating strategy and shortening laying time of pig manure on the barn floor are mitigation options to reduce environmental impacts.

As far as people are concerned about the environment, environmental impact of animal
husbandry has attracted a lot of attention. Pig production is known as one of the contributors to
climate change because it emits gases with environmental impacts. In this study we estimated
environmental impacts of intensive pig production in the Mekong Delta. We calculated
environmental impact indicators, identified hotspots and proposed mitigation options to reduce
environmental impacts of intensive pig production. We used life cycle assessment (LCA) to
estimate global warming potential (GWP), land use, fossil energy use, eutrophication potential
(EP) and acidification potential (AP). We collected data related to production in 2010 (inputs and
outputs) of 35 intensive pig farms in Tien Giang Province. Feed formulations, countries of origin
of feed ingredients and feed production inputs were obtained from the three feed mills that
were the most common suppliers for the study region. Environmental impacts of feed
ingredients, tap water, electricity and diesel were computed by Simapro software (version 3.2.2

using Ecoinvent V2 database).

The results showed that to produce one kg of live pig, on average,5.06 ± 0.38 kg CO2‐eq, 404 ± 32 g NO3‐‐eq and 64 ± 8 g SO2‐eq were emitted and 7.72 ± 0.6 m2land, 22 ± 1.7 MJ fossil energy were used. In terms of GWP, land use, fossil energy use and EP,impact of off‐farm activities was much higher than on‐farm activities. On contrast, on‐farm AP

(43 ± 8 g SO2‐eq per kg live pig) was approximately twice as high as off‐farm AP (21 ± 1.6 g SO2‐
eq per kg live pig). In general, feed production caused the environmental off‐farm impacts
related to GWP, land use, fossil energy use and EP. In other words, feed production was one of
the hotspots of intensive pig production in Mekong Delta. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was highly
correlated with these environmental impacts. Saving feed by improving productivity of pig
breeds and feed technology will result in lower environmental impacts of pig production.
Therefore, decreasing FCR is a mitigation option to reduce environmental impacts. Changing
feed compositions changed GWP, land use, fossil energy use, EP and AP. For instance, maize
production had lower GWP (0.79 kg CO2‐eq per kg maize) compared with broken rice production
(4.35 kg CO2‐eq per kg broken rice). Consequently, feed formulating strategy, like using feed
ingredients with lower environmental impacts, is another mitigation option. Ammonia emission
from pig manure on the barn floor contributed most to AP. Shortening laying time of pig manure

on the barn floor, therefore, is a mitigation option for AP.


Student: TV Nhan

Supervisors: dr ir E Mollenhorst, T Viets

36 Ects