The dairy sector is in flux in Uganda. From a net milk importer Uganda has developed into an exporter. Climate change is increasingly affecting dairy systems, while at the same time the dairy sector contributes to climate change. Wageningen University & Research identifies and promotes climate-smart practices at dairy farms, based on improved herd productivity and farm income, climate adaptation and mitigation. For Uganda, the preliminary results show that applying artificial insemination services, paddocks and fences, fodder banks, water storage and tick control are potentially effective measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving resilience of dairy farms.