Onderwerp scriptie

Livestock production systems dynamics and drivers of changes in the Ethiopian Rift Valley: The case of transition of pastoralism to agro-pastoralism in Fentale district - Fikrineh Negash Gebre

It has become difficult for pastoralists in Ethiopia to subsist largely on livestock due to several changes occurred, and thus livestock production system is changing. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to assess the transition of pastoralism to agro-pastoralism as livestock production systems dynamics and the drivers of the change. The data were collected through methods including an individual interview using pre-tested questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions, personal observation, and discussion with concerned district staffs. To quantify the effect of climate change on livestock dynamics, livestock population and climate data were used.

Livestock productions in developing countries are changing in response to a variety of drivers include population growth, increase in the demand for livestock products, income rise, urbanization, water availability, climate change, technological innovations and socio-economic conditions. Similarly, it has become difficult for pastoralists in Ethiopia to subsist largely on livestock due to several changes occurred and thus livestock production system is changing. Therefore, the main aim of the present study is to assess the transition of pastoralism to agro-pastoralism as livestock production systems dynamics and the drivers of the change in Fentale district, East Shoa zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The data were collected through methods including an individual interview using pre-tested questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions, personal observation, and discussion with concerned district staffs. To quantify the effect of climate change on livestock dynamics, livestock population and climate data were used. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Pastoralists in the study area perceived that livestock production systems is transforming from pastoralism to agro-pastoralism in response to a number of drivers mainly include grazing land degradation, decline in per capital livestock holdings, expansion of crop cultivation, reduced herd mobility, increased human population, socio-cultural changes, and climate change. Some of the challenges facing pastoral production systems such as expansion of Lake Beseka, expansion of national parks, and encroachment of unwanted plant species significantly added to the changes. As a consequence, pastoralism in the future was perceived as very negative and discouraging. Livestock population was fluctuated in response to climate variability explained by shift in rainfall amounts and patterns. Despite the change and the constraints facing the system, pastoralists in the present study area used different strategies to adapt the changing livestock productions and the risks associated with climate changes. These include livestock diversification, herd mobility, use of crop residue, natural resource conservation, conservation of dry season grazing area, and livelihood diversification. The change and the constraints facing the system are influencing sustainability of pastoral production system. Therefore, proper rural development polices, research, and extension services should be installed by concerned governmental and non-governmental organizations so as to ensure sustainability of pastoral production systems in the study area.

Student: FN Gebre

Supervisor: dr ir S Oosting

36 Ects