For many rural and traditional communities, the world is rapidly changing through climate change, market economies, urbanization, and so on. What is the future traditional communities in the midst of such changes? This thesis will look at the literature on resilience that focuses on the capability of communities to bounce back from social and environmental disturbances. It will also look at critique of resilience theory as overly conservative and discuss alternative options for the thinking about the future of traditional communities in a world of rapid change. You can integrate this topic with more specific case studies and focus on a particular geographic area.