Sustainable urban resource management depends essentially on a sound understanding of a city’s resource ﬂows. One established method for analyzing the urban metabolism (UM) is the Eurostat material ﬂow analysis (MFA). However, for a comprehensive assessment of the UM, this method has its limitations. It does not account for all relevant resource ﬂows, such as locally sourced resources, and it does not differentiate between ﬂows that are associated with the city’s resource consumption and resources that only pass through the city. This research sought to gain insights into the UM of Amsterdam by performing an MFA employing the Eurostat method. Modiﬁcations to that method were made to enhance its performance for comprehensive UM analyses. A case study of Amsterdam for the year 2012 was conducted and the results of the Eurostat and the modiﬁed Eurostat method were compared. The results show that Amsterdam’s metabolism is dominated by water ﬂows and by port-related throughput of fossil fuels. The modiﬁed Eurostat method provides a deeper understanding of the UM than the urban Eurostat MFA attributed to three major beneﬁts of the proposed modiﬁcations. First, the MFA presents a more complete image of the ﬂows in the UM. Second, the modiﬁed resource classiﬁcation presents ﬁndings in more detail. Third, explicating throughput ﬂows yields a much-improved insight into the nature of a city’s imports, exports, and stock. Overall, these advancements provide a deeper understanding of the UM and make the MFA method more useful for sustainable urban resource management.
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