Soma, K. & Vatn, A. (2014). Representing the common goods – stakeholders vs. citizens. Land Use Policy, 41: 325-333.
Whereas participatory processes have been advised as decision support to environmental management worldwide, the way different ways of organizing them influence outcomes of such processes have not been sufficiently addressed. In this study we reflect on two specific types of framings for participatory processes by examining one case dominated by stakeholders and another facilitating deliberation among citizens. Both processes concern coastal zone management in Norway. Whilst the main aim of the paper is to address how the framing of a participatory process influences its form and content, we also emphasize the distinct differences in outcomes from the two processes. Our analyses show that people are clearly acknowledging that there is a difference between acting as a citizen and as a stakeholder, and finding it unproblematic to identify themselves with such roles. Based on the findings, we reflect on their significance because fostering such logic throughout participatory processes may enhance our capacity to think both more long term and more principally about which values to protect.
Keywords: Stakeholders; Citizens; Participation; Roles; Coastal zone management