Wageningen Livestock Research recently updated the CVB recommendations for dietary calcium and phosphorus. New scientific insights and data, and the improved genetic capacity of current pig genotypes for body gain, feed efficiency and production of piglets were taken into account. The new recommendations allow the feed industry to produce diets that meet the requirements and minimise the losses into the environment. The report includes advice for specific conditions, e.g. in relation to the performance of the pigs.
Optimal supply of phosphorus (P) to growing pigs and sows is important for their health and production . It also reduces the excretion into the environment and limits the use of finite resources of (rock)phosphate. Equal attention for calcium (Ca) is needed since P retention in bone requires adequate Ca supply, but a surplus of Ca may hamper the absorption of P from the digestive tract.
Endogenous losses included
The requirements of the pigs have been based on the endogenous losses of Ca and P in faeces and urine, the retention in the body of growing pigs, in maternal and foetal tissues and milk in sows, and the efficiency of the processes involved. The requirements have now been expressed on a standardised digestible basis in which basal endogenous losses are regarded as part of the maintenance requirements of the pigs. As a consequence, these recommendations need to be used in combination with the standardised digestible P content of feed materials and diets.
The results are summarised in the table below. An advice on the basis of total dietary Ca, adopting a mean value for Ca digestibility, is included because the Ca digestibility of feed ingredients is not well known. Users are advised to use insights in the digestibility of the specific Ca sources included in their diets.
The underlying documentation is available in CVB-report 59: Phosphorus and calcium requirements of growing pigs and sows.
Summary of the previous (Jongbloed et al., 2003) and present (Bikker and Blok, 2017) recommendations for digestible P and total Ca in swine diets (in g per EW, with 1 EW = 8.8 MJ NE).