In November 2013, bones covered with quicklime were discovered at a construction site near Nijmegen. According to regulations samples were sent to the national reference laboratory (Central Veterinary Institute, CVI), based on the suspicion of anthrax. Laboratory testing confirmed the presence of Bacillus anthracis. In this paper we present a historic overview of anthrax in the Netherlands. Despite absence of anthrax in animals in the Netherlands in the last two decades, the presence of B. anthracis spores in Dutch soil indicates that clinical anthrax in Dutch livestock might still be an actual risk.