Record high solar irradiance in Western Europe during first COVID-19 lockdown largely due to unusual weather

Heerwaarden, Chiel C. Van; Mol, Wouter B.; Veerman, Menno A.; Benedict, Imme; Heusinkveld, Bert G.; Knap, Wouter H.; Kazadzis, Stelios; Kouremeti, Natalia; Fiedler, Stephanie


Spring 2020 broke sunshine duration records across Western Europe. The Netherlands recorded the highest surface irradiance since 1928, exceeding the previous extreme of 2011 by 13%, and the diffuse fraction of the irradiance measured a record low percentage (38%). The coinciding irradiance extreme and a reduction in anthropogenic pollution due to COVID-19 measures triggered the hypothesis that cleaner-than-usual air contributed to the record.
Based on analyses of ground-based and satellite observations and experiments with a radiative transfer model, we estimate a 1.3% (2.3Wm−2) increase in surface irradiance with respect to the 2010–2019 mean due to a low median aerosol optical depth, and a 17.6% (30.7Wm−2) increase due to several exceptionally dry days and a very low cloud fraction overall. Our analyses show that the reduced aerosols and contrails due to the COVID-19 measures are far less important in the irradiance record than the dry and particularly cloudfree weather.