Critically Important Antimicrobial Resistance Trends in Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Typhimurium Isolated from the Pork Production Chain in Brazil : A 16-Year Period

Pissetti, Caroline; de Freitas Costa, Eduardo; Zenato, Karoline Silva; de Itapema Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro


Knowledge about antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella is relevant due to its importance in foodborne diseases. We gathered data obtained over 16 years in the southern Brazilian swine production chain to evaluate the temporal evolution of halo for carbapenem, and the MIC for third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and polymyxin in 278 Salmonella Derby and Typhimurium isolates. All antimicrobial resistance assays were performed in accordance with EUCAST. To assess the diameter halo, we used a mixed linear model, and to assess the MIC, an accelerated failure time model for interval-censored data using an exponential distribution was used. The linear predictor of the models comprised fixed effects for matrix, serovar, and the interaction between year, serovar, and matrix. The observed halo diameter has decreased for ertapenem, regardless of serovars and matrices, and for the serovar Typhimurium it has decreased for three carbapenems. The MIC for ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime increased over 16 years for Typhimurium, and for Derby (food) it decreased. We did not find evidence that the MIC for colistin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin (Derby), or cefotaxime (food Typhimurium and animal Derby) has changed over time. This work gave an overview of antimicrobial resistance evolution from an epidemiological point of view and observed that using this approach can increase the sensitivity and timeliness of antimicrobial resistance surveillance.