Discussion paper: Nature based solutions in Food Systems : Review of nature-based solutions towards more sustainable agriculture and food production

Budding-Polo Ballinas, M.; Arumugam, P.; Verstand, D.; Siegmund-Schultze, M.G.R.; Keesstra, S.D.; Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Boer, Rens de; Eldik, Z.C.S. van; Voskamp, I.M.


This discussion paper aims to provide information to the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV) on NbS to understand more about the principles upon which NbS are based for sustainable agriculture and food systems. This research also aims to contribute to an operational framework that could guide applications of NbS on different regions in the world and at different scales, as well to provide relevant scientific material for the development of future policy guidelines.
A desktop research was conducted through literature review and through the use of secondary data. NbS case studies for food production implemented in the Netherlands, in Europe, and in the global south (Latin America, Africa, and Asia) were collected and reviewed.
This discussion paper is organized in the following way: Firstly, definitions, principles and concepts of NbS are explained in section 2. Moreover, section 3 is about the application of NbS for food security and circularity under climate change conditions. Case studies from the Netherlands, Europe and the global south are mentioned. Section 4 explains the drivers, opportunities, and hindering factors for the successful implementation of NbS in different socio-ecological and climatic contexts. NbS across different scales are described in section 5 with reference to different case studies. Section 6 relates to the factors that support multi-stakeholders participation, the available NbS tools and data, along with the description of business models to jointly explore the potential for NbS applications. We then turn to present our conclusions and recommendations addressed in section 7.