The study is founded on multiple discourses where different interpretations of a particular phenomenon by various actors have been analysed. The thesis is meant to show that relationships between society and nature are dynamic, entail multi-sited struggles among many actors at several terrains and are deeply rooted in earlier history.
Forest is shaped by a loosely knit network of actors that are linked together by a several complex rights, claims and social relationships which seem to determine the fate of the forest in a village. Therefore forest is not just a biological resource where trees grow, it is a complete system of actors (in and out of forests) and their interests which may not essentially be in line with each other. Any options to solve the issues of deforestation therefore must consider this complexity in order to make the right decision.
This thesis has eight chapters. The first one gives an introduction. Chapter 2 elaborates the theoretical foundation and methodological trajectory of this thesis. Chapter 3 gives a detailed account of history of Haripur Pakistan and how forests were legally categorised and distributed to government and poeple. Chapter 4 provides a detailed account of how the Forest department operates in relation to people and forest resources. Chapter 5 deals with the subject of forest fire. Chapters 6 deals with actors in their struggle to secure their rights to the forest through acquiring forest land title deeds. Regular access to forest by non-right holders and landless for earning an income is dealt with in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 brings the conclusions together.